American Political and Military Issues

Newspaper coverage of Whitefield’s evangelical tour and of other moments of the Awakening signaled it as one of the first events that was a shared experience across the Eastern seaboard colonies. Intercolonial trade strengthened connections during the eighteenth century, but in the early years, at least, travel between colonies was difficult and a bit unusual, as is revealed in Sarah Kemble Knight’s 1704 Journal of her trip from Boston to New York (published in 1825). Dr. Alexander Hamilton’s 1744 Itinerarium (published 1907) revealed that during his pleasure tour from Annapolis to New England and back, his presence was regarded as a considerable curiosity in rural communities, although he found comfortably polite society in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Military and political events originating outside the colonies in the 1750s and 1760s furthered the sense of intercolonial connection begun by the Awakening. The Seven Years’ War of 1756 to 1763, known as the French and Indian War in North America, involved all of the colonies in the struggle against France and the French-led Native American forces, as well as shared expansionist ambitions. The subsequent efforts of the British government to make the colonies pay a greater share of the costs of empire, beginning with the Stamp Act of 1765, brought the colonies together in a spirit of resistance. The cultural and intellectual life of the colonies became increasingly overshadowed by the political struggles over who was to govern them, or so it seems to historians who have written from a post-Revolutionary viewpoint. The culture of politeness continued to thrive in all of the colonies. Boston’s Reverend Mather Byles emerged as one of the best neoclassical poets of the age in his A Collection of Poems by Several Hands (1744) and in later works. He advised the young African poet Phillis Wheatley as she wrote the poems that appeared in her 1773 Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. But Boston seemed more consumed by the conflicts between the royal governors and the legislature that produced influential tracts like James Otis, Jr.’s The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved (1764). When the poet and historian Mercy Otis Warren published her first work, it was The Adulateur (1772), a satiric play targeting Governor Hutchinson and his circle. The Stamp Act also met with widespread criticism. Brought to America and sold into slavery as a child in 1761, Phillis Wheatley created a sensation a decade later with her poems on classical and Christian themes, most notably in the book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773). (Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library) John Dickinson’s Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania first appeared in the Pennsylvania Chronicle in 1767, and it was subsequently widely reprinted in other newspapers and in pamphlets. Dickinson, a lawyer and member of the Pennsylvania and Delaware elite, managed to make the Farmer a powerful image of American self-identity. In subsequent controversies after the Revolution, the Westchester Farmer and the Federal Farmer delivered their opinions, and Guillaume Crevecoeur’s Letters from an American Farmer (1782) identified the literate farmer, skilled at agriculture and epistolary art, as the quintessential American. The pamphlet war intensified in the 1770s as American rights and American identity increasingly became issues of concern. James Wilson’s Considerations on the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament (1774) and Thomas Jefferson’s Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774) were powerful, literate arguments before the fact for American self-rule. The political culture that led to the First and Second Continental Congresses culminated in the Declaration of Independence, the last piece of literature from the American colonies and, at the same time, the first from the United States. The larger cultural developments of colonial America presaged independence, a fact realized in the 1771 commencement piece at Reverend William Smith’s College of Philadelphia. The young poets Hugh Henry Brackenridge and Philip Freneau titled their work A Poem on the Rising Glory of America. It avoided politics, but its assertion of an imagined America was more than merely colonial. Frank Shuffelton Bibliography Amory, Hugh, and David D. Hall, eds. The Colonial Book in the Atlantic World, Vol. 1 of A History of the Book in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Bercovitch, Sacvan, ed. The Cambridge History of American Literature. Vol. 1, 1590 1820. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Blecki, Catherine LaCourreye, and Karin A. Wulf. Milcah Martha Moore’s Book: A Commonplace Book From Revolutionary America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. Crawford, Richard. America’s Musical Life: A History. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001. Davis, Richard Beale, ed. The Colonial Virginia Satirist: Mid-Eighteenth-Century Commentaries on Politics, Religion, and Society. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57:1 (1957). Hall, Clayton Colman, ed. Narratives of Early Maryland. New York: Scribner’s, 1910. Jehlen, Myra, and Michael Warner. The English Literatures of America, 1500 1800. New York: Routledge, 1997. Jones, Howard Mumford. The Literature of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1968. Larkin, Oliver W. Art and Life in America. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960. Lemay, J. A. Leo. Men of Letters in Colonial Maryland. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1972. Levernier, James A., and Douglas R. Wilmes, eds. American Writers Before 1800: A Biographical and Critical Dictionary. 3 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983. Meserole, Harrison T., ed. Seventeenth-Century American Poetry. New York: New York University Press, 1968. Meserve, Walter J. An Emerging Entertainment: The Drama of the American People to 1828. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982. Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: From Colony to Province. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953. Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954. Miller, Perry, and Alan Heimert, eds. The Great Awakening: Documents Illustrating the Crisis and Its Consequences. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967. Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Founding of Harvard College. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1935. Mulford, Carla, Angela Vietto, and Amy E. Winans. Early American Writings. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Quinn, Arthur Hobson. A History of the American Drama From the Beginning to the Civil War. New York: Appleton-Century, 1943. Richardson, E. P. Painting in America From 1502 to the Present. New York: Crowell, 1956. Shields, David S. Civil Tongues & Polite Letters in British America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Silverman, Kenneth, ed. Colonial American Poetry. New York: Hafner, 1968. Silverman, Kenneth. A Cultural History of the American Revolution: Painting, Music, Literature, and the Theater in the Colonies and the United States from the Treaty of Paris to the Inauguration of George Washington, 1763 1789. New York: Crowell, 1976. Sonneck, O. G. Early Concert Life in America. Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf and H¤rtel, 1907. Stearns, Raymond Phineas. Science in the British Colonies of America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970. Wright, Thomas Goddard. Literary Culture in Early New England, 1620 1730. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1920.

1970s and 1980s Presentation “Latin American Political Systems and Issues Today … GOP taking food stamps from disabled veterans. The Military …

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