Africamap of africa for Unfortunately, but inevitably given the foibles and pitfalls of human nature, there has also been an ugly side of Zen koan discourse, revealed all too clearly in the modern era. Th is has manifested in three main areas. Th e fi rst has been referred to by Brian Victoria as Zen at War, the title of a book from the late 1990s that severely lambasts the way quite a few Zen masters capitulated to pre? World War II Japa nese supernationalism and militarism. Doing so makes them 170 complicit in the atrocities of the Rape of Nanjing, which occurred in 1937 and led to the murder of several hundred thousand Chinese civilians, in addition to the exploitation of comfort women (women of indigenous populations forced into prostitution) recruited from Korea and other parts of Asia. Th ese women, who were exploited throughout the war, and their descendants still seek reparations today, or at least ac know ledg ment of the wrongdoings suff ered, which is admitted by Japa nese authorities only with great reluctance. Victoria documents how koans like Linji’s saying, Kill the Buddha, were all too readily distorted into cries for war uttered by monks who were being retrained on temple grounds as soldiers to be sent off to battle. Although there has been good cooperation between Zen leaders from China, Japan, and Korea in the postwar period, tensions from the World War II atrocities continue to plague relations between the three countries. Africamap of africa 2016.