Africa travel guide for On these accounts, Keynesian social security programs were vital to the production of a sociopolitical order in which classifications between the deserving and the un-deserving poor, claimants and non-claimants constituted the national-citizen/worker as the normatively produced subject of liberal governance. In contrast, cutbacks in social security spending and the marketization of social provisioning currently underway in most advanced capitalist democracies in response to heightened global economic competitiveness are seen as emblematic of new practices of governance appropriate to the new spatialization of the economy as global, and the reduced capacity of the nation- state. Cutbacks in social security spending, the privatization of insurance, pensions, and health care, and the attempt to move the unemployed needy from welfare to work-fare under conditions of heightened surveillance and behavioral scrutiny constitutes, critics suggest, a new moral technology calculated to fashion a changed subjectivity in accordance with the new axis of self-governance appropriate to the economic and political rationalities of later capitalist societies. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Martin S. Feldstein and Horst Siebert, Social Security Pension Reform in Europe (University of Chicago Press, 2002); Alexander Hicks, Social Democracy and Welfare Capitalism: A Century of Income Security Politics (Cornell University Press, 2000). RITU VIJ AMERICAN UNIVERSITY socialism THE BIRTH OF THE IDEA of the socialism grew out of important European events in the late 18th century. Africa travel guide 2016.