II.Iconography. The cycle of the first parents in early Christian iconography is usually depicted in four scenes: the creation, the Fall, the giving of the symbols of work and the expulsion from Eden. To these is added the episode of the hypogeum of Via Dino Compagni in Rome unicum, in which Adam and Eve are shown in an attitude of sorrow with Cain and Abel, who seem to be moving toward them Ferrua, pl.
Adam And Eve Gallery Photos
Adam And Eve
The Creation Gen 2:7, 21-22. Only seven examples are known: six sculptures and a painting; the latter, from the hypogeum of the Aurelii in Rome, is the oldest ca.
230 240 and is now destroyed; it is sometimes identified with the scene of the demiurge creating man Bendinelli, fig. 13; Himmelmann. The most complete scene is that of the so-called dogmatic sarcophagus Ws 96, ca.
340, which depicts the Trinity, Eve shown as smaller at the moment of creation and Adam sleeping after the rib has been taken from him. The Fall Gen 3:1-13. Among the numerous examples, the oldest is probably that of the baptistery of Dura Europos pre-256.
Adam and Eve are usually shown beside the tree, with the serpent twisted around the trunk sometimes the reptile is not shown e.g. Ws 177, 179, 204, 3, probably because it was thought to be superfluous once the temptation had occurred; they cover their nakedness with leaves or with their hands. Though from the beginning the scene was elaborated in terms that would endure, in most cases substantially unchanged e.g. Rome, Marcellinus and Peter, second half of the 3rd c.: Wp 101, the variety of attitudes of Adam and Eve seems to reflect the desire of authors or patrons, even in the earliest examples, to express the whole episode of the Fall in more detail. Consequently, depending on the act in which Adam and Eve are depicted, one notes, besides the moment after the sin i.e. Adam and Eve covering themselves the following: the temptation, the act in which the Fall consisted Eve picking, holding or eating the fruit; Adam taking the fruit and putting it in his mouth; Adam and Eve seemingly picking the fruit, both with their right arms extended toward the tree, Adam accusing Eve, and Eve perhaps in turn accusing the serpent.
Chronologically, in the context of the Fall understood as a completed transgression, Adam accusing Eve is depicted from the first decades of the 3rd c.Cimitile with the tree and the serpent: Chierici, fig. 7; Naples, catac.
Of St. Januarius: Fasola, fig. 15, the act of the Fall at the beginning of the 4th c.
E.g. Ws 190, 1; 19 1,3, Eve blaming the serpent in the first third of the 4th c.Rome, catac. Of Marcellinus and Peter: Kirsch, fig.
4 and the temptation from about the middle of the same century Rome, hypogeum of Via D.Compagni: Ferrua, pl.68, 2.
Other elements begin to appear in some 4th-c. Examples, to enrich the basic formulation of the scene: the symbols of work, i.e. the lamb and thorns Ws 177, 2; 92, 2; 190, the Logos or the Lord Ws 186, 2; 92,2. At times these elements appear together, as, e.g. in the Vat.
Collection. It should be noted that some monuments, due to Adam and Eve's attitude, fall outside of the categories of the Fall discussed thus far. On the sarcophagus of Velletri Ws 4,3 from the early Constantine period, Eve covers herself with her left hand; Adam is not covered, because his left arm is on Eve's shoulder while he holds her right hand in his dextrarum iunctio?
In a mid-4th-c. Fresco in a hypogeum in the Via Latina, Rome, the tree is shown with Adam and Eve beside it; both cover themselves with their left hands, their right arms indifferently raised toward heaven Ferrua, Un nuovo cubicolo, fig. 9.
On a RomanOstian table, ca. 400, Adam and Eve cover themselves with their right hands, their left arms raised with open hand. The scene of the Fall has obvious symbolic value: it contained the concept of the felix culpa that made the redemption necessary.
This was obviously not understood in the sense of a return of humanity to the material situation of the earthly paradise but of a spiritual rebirth of human nature. The giving of the symbols of work. This scene is exclusive to sculpture and follows a fixed schema: at the center is the Logos in tunic and pallium, consigning the ears of corn to Adam with his right hand and the sheep to Eve with his left Ws 40; 218, 2.
Adam and Eve, having already sinned, cover their nakedness. The scene appears on approx. 30 Roman and provincial manufactured articles, all dated to the first half of the 4th c.
In some cases, probably to underscore the significance of the episode, the symbols of work are sculpted at the feet of the Logos as well as in his hands Ws 93,1. The depictions clearly show the consequences of sin: the sheep and the ears of corn clearly indicate the material condition of humanity after the Fall; the ears, i.e. working the fields, and the sheep, i.e. weaving the principal occupations of ancient life indicate the work that human beings are condemned to carry out for their survival on earth. The scene could be considered a visual representation of Gen 3:17.
The expulsion from Eden Gen 3:23. Somewhat rare in early Christian art, it follows a schema very faithful to the biblical passage: the Lord in tunic and pallium turns toward Adam and Eve, who are about to pass through the gate of paradise. The scene is depicted ca.
Mid-4th c.at Rome in the hypogeum of Via D.Compagni Ferrua, pl.
29, on the sarcophagus of Lot Rep. 188 and, probably, in the so-called chapel of the Exodus at El-Bagawat Stern, fig. 7.
De Bruyne maintains that the episode was also sculpted on the so-called sarcophagus of Balaam Rep. 176: if true, it would certainly be the oldest example. Adam and Eve also appear on objects in ivory a late 4th-c.
Diptych at Florence where Adam appears naked in Eden: Volbach, n.108, in glass Fall of Adam and Eve: e.g. Morey, pl.24, 224; 8,47; 33, 420, on 6th- and 7th-c.
Codices Genesis of Vienna Fall: HartelWickoff, pl. 1; Cotton Bible God presents Eve to Adam, and the temptation: Lethaby, pl. 69; Ashburnham Pentateuch Adam and Eve after the expulsion from Eden: Gebhardt, pl.
3.Symbolically, the Fall cycle evokes the cause and origin of the redemption, reaffirms the immortality of the human soul and exhorts the faithful to observance of the divine law. This final consideration seems to be included in a particular way in the scene of the giving of the symbols of work and in that of the expulsion, in which the effects of sin are highlighted.
RBK 1,40 ff. ; BS 1, 223ff. ; LCI 1,41ff. ; A.Breymann, Adam und Eva in der Kunst des christlichen Altertums, Wolfenb¼ttel 1893; L.Troje, ADAM und ZWH, eine Szene der altchristlichen Kunst in ihrem religionsgeschichtlichen Zusammenh¤nge: Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akad.
Der Wissen. Phil.hist. Klasse 17 1916 5ff. ; Ws 225ff. ; E.
Dassmann, S¼ndenvergebung durch Taufe, Basse und M¤rtyrerf¼rbitte in den Zeugnissen fr¼hchristlicher Frmmigkeit und Kunst, M¼nster 1973, 320ff. ; D.Calcagnini-Carletti, Note su alcune raffigurazioni dei protoparenti a Roma, in Miscellanea S.Cipriani, Brescia 1981; W.
HartelWickhoff, Die Wiener Genesis, Prag-Vienna-Leipzig 1895; W.R. Lethaby, The Painted Book of Genesis in the British Museum: The Archaeological Journal 1912 88ff. ; G.Bendinelli, Il monumento sepolcrale degli Aureli al viale Manzoni in Roma, Rome 1923; P.
Baur, Les peintures de la chapelle chrtienne de Doura: GAZ B.A. 75 1933 65ff. ; G.P. Kirsch, Cubicoli dipinti nel cimitero dei Ss.
Marcellino e Pietro sulla via Labicana: RivAC 9 1932 17ff. ; L.De Bruyne, Sarcofago cristiano con nuovi temi iconografici scoperto a S.Sebastiano sulla via Appia: RivAC 16 1939 247ff. ; G.
Chierici, Cimitile, I: RivAC 33 1957 99ff. ; C.R. Morey, The Gold-Glass Collection of the Vatican Library, with Additional Catalogues of Other Gold-Glass Collections, G.Ferrari ed. Vatican City 1959; H.
Stern, Les peintures du Mausole de l'Exode El-Bagawat: Cahiers Archol. 11 1960 3ff. ; A.Ferrua, Le pitture della nuova catacomba di via Latina, Vatican City 1960; Repertorium der christlich-antiken Sarkophage.
Ersten Band: Rom und Ostia, ed.F.W. Deichmann, G.
Bovini und H.Brandenburg, Wiesbaden 1967; R.Giordani, Considerazioni sul rilievo cristiano del Museo di Velletri: RivAC 48 1972 173ff. ; A.
Ferrua, Un nuovo cubicolo dipinto della via Latina: RPAA 45 1972-73, 171ff. ; N.Himmelmann, Das Hypog¤um der Aurelier am viale Manzoni, Ikonographische Beobachtungen, Mainz 1973; U.Fasola, La catacomba di S.
Gennaro a Capodimonte, Rome 1975; W.F. Volbach, Elfen-beinarbeiten der Sp¤tantike und fr¼hen Mittelalters, Mainz 3 1976; A.De Vita, L'ipogeo di Adamo e Eva a Gargaresc, in Atti IX Congr.
Intern.Arch.Crist. Vatican City 1978, 199ff. ; L.
Pani Ermini, Una mensa paleocristiana con bordo istoriato: RIA 1 1978 70ff. ; P.Testini, Cimitile: L'antichit cristiana, update of the work of E.Berteaux, L'art dans l'Italie Mridionale, Rome 1978, 163ff. ; J.-P.
Pettorelli, Pch originel ou amour conjugal? Note sur le sens des images d'Adam et d'ˆve sur les sarcophages chrtiens de l'antiquit tardive: RechAug 30 1997 279-234; D.Calcagnini, Adamo ed Eva s.v. in Temi di iconografia Paleocristiana, F.Bisconti ed. Rome 2000, 96-101.
D.Calcagnini III. Apocrypha.
The persons and fate of the first parents aroused great interest on the part of both Jews and Christians orthodox or heretics. There are many works on this theme, whose existence is confirmed by the Talmud, by the OT and NT apocrypha, by ecclesiastical writers the Ps. - Gelasian Decree a number of times cites writings attributed to Adam and finally by Byzantine writers George Syncellus, Cedrenus. Writings on Adam and Eve and their descendants exist in Greek, Latin, Arabic, Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, Georgian, Slavic and other languages.
They are listed with an ample literature in the CAVT and are described by Denis see bibliography. This immense production can be divided into three parts: 1 Life of Adam and Eve and its derivatives; 2 works of the Adam cycle; 3 works on the first descendants of Adam and Eve. 1.
The Life of Adam and Eve LAE, called by Tischendorf the Apocalypse of Moses, was probably written in Hebrew or Aramaic; of the two different existing versions Greek and Latin the Greek seems to be closer to the original; the LAE also exists completely in Armenian, Georgian, Rumanian and Slavic, and in fragments in Coptic and Arabic. The author was probably a Hellenic Jew; the work was written in the 1st-2nd c., or perhaps later, in the 2nd- 4th c.Some fragments of the work seem to show Christian influence.
Particularly helpful for reconstructing the original Life are the following versions of the LAE: Greek ed.A.D. Bernardi, Paris 1987, Latin ed.
J.M. Mozley, JTS 30 1929 121-149, paleoSlavic and Georgian; fragments of the Coptic version; and the Armenian Paenitentia Adae. The work recounts the life of Adam and Eve after their expulsion from paradise and includes an account of the original sin told by Eve.
Both are buried near paradise. Some versions of the LAE include the story of the tree of the holy cross. Was Adam With Eve When She was Deceived by the Serpent? Holidaymapq