Acipayam for For example, when examining smoking behaviour, perhaps perceptions of cancer or COPD should be more fully addressed. Additionally, perceptions of treatment may influence the health behaviour of adherence, as suggested in studies of the beliefs in the necessity of medicine and concerns about taking them e.g. Clifford et al. and see also Chapter Ethnic differences in how certain conditions are perceived may also affect help-seeking behaviour, as suggested in a Hawaiian study comparing beliefs about alcoholism and emotional problems held by Caucasian, Philipino, Japanese and native Hawaian adults. Caucasians perceived significantly fewer barriers to disclosing alcohol or emotional problems than the three ethnic minority groups. The perceived barriers showed interesting ethnic differences for example, ethnic minority groups more often perceived barriers relating to low awareness of where to go for help for alcohol problems, and greater barrier of shame of others finding out about an emotional problem Takeuchi et al In our multicultural society it should not be assumed therefore that beliefs about conditions, or about relevant preventative health behaviours, are the same. Acipayam 2016.