A City Guide To Zhaotong for These investigations of elite power follow the lead of the Italian neo-Marxist Antonio Gramsci, who was concerned with the hegemony enjoyed by the political class controlling the state apparatus.26 Gramsci formulated his theory to account for specific historical developments, namely, the longevity and increasing strength of capitalism in the twentieth century. Its unabated growth contradicted orthodox Marxist theory (particularly as elaborated by the Second International), which predicted proletarian revolution and the quick demise of capitalism. Gramsci attempted to explain the anomaly. He focused on how the 82 thinking politics dominant class used political and cultural tools to manipulate the other strata of society into accepting, and even endorsing, unjust and exploitative social relations. While orthodox Marxism often spoke with the voice of economic determinism, Gramsci pointed to the power of elites and elite institutions to postpone social revolution indefinitely. Postmodernists have many of the same concerns as Gramsci and contemporary theorists of political behavior. A City Guide To Zhaotong 2016.