A City Guide To Zaoyang for For deontologists, justice is a duty that should never be shirked or compromised. Right action is to be pursued for its own sake, regardless of the benefits or costs it brings to our lives. A deontological understanding of justice was first systematically formulated by Immanuel Kant. For Kant, justice constituted a universal law to act in such a way that one’s free action was compatible with a reciprocal freedom for all others. 135 Defending this Kantian understanding of justice, John Rawls maintains Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust. Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. A City Guide To Zaoyang 2016.