A City Guide To Tangshan for hysterical paralysis, e.g. Freud and Breuer Freud stimulated much work into unconscious conflict, personality and illness, which ultimately led to the development of the field of psychosomatic medicine as we now know it see later section. Psychologists have highlighted the need for medicine to become more holistic and to consider the role played in the aetiology, course and outcomes of illness, by psychological and social factors. The biopsychosocial model signals a broadening of a disease or biomedical model of health to one encompassing and emphasising the interaction between biological processes and psychological and social influences Engel , In doing so, it offers a complex and multivariate, but potentially more comprehensive, model with which to examine the human experience of illness. It burgeoned in popularity as a result of the many challenges to the biomedical approach as briefly illustrated above, but it was also due to increasing recognition of the role individual behaviour plays in health and illness. It is to this that we turn attention briefly now, with key behaviours explored more fully in Chapters and Behaviour and health The dramatic increases in life expectancy witnessed in Western countries in the twentieth century, partially due to advances in medical technology and treatments, led to a general belief, in Western cultures at least, in the efficacy of traditional medicine and its power to eradicate disease. A City Guide To Tangshan 2016.