A City Guide To Shiyan for derived demand: when the demand for one good, typically the demand for a factor of production, is dependent on the demand for another good. For example, the demand for labor is called a derived demand because the quantity of labor demanded varies with changes in the demand for the hiring firm’s output. discouraged workers: individuals who are not employed and have stopped actively looking or interviewing for a new job. diseconomies of scale: when long-run increases in a firm’s output (or scale of operation) lead to increases in long-run average cost. disinflation: a decrease in the rate of inflation. disposable income: the amount of income left over for consumers to use on consumption and/or saving once personal taxes are deducted. dumping: the act of selling goods in a foreign country at a price below what is charged domestically. A City Guide To Shiyan 2016.