A City Guide To Shibganj for positive economics: economic analysis that explains or predicts outcomes in an objective manner. That is, analysis that is more descriptive than otherwise. poverty: a less than acceptable level of income. predatory pricing: the act of pricing below cost with the intent of reducing or eliminating competition within an industry. present value: the value today of a future stream of income or payments. 942 Glossary price ceiling: a price control that establishes a maximum price for a good. If the price ceiling causes market prices to fall, then shortages will arise. A City Guide To Shibganj 2016.