A City Guide To Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport for There is growing evidence that Westernised views of health differ in various ways from conceptualisations of health in non-Westernised civilisations. Chalmers astutely notes that Westerners divide the mind, body and INDIVIDUAL, CULTURAL AND LIFESPAN PERSPECTIVES ON HEALTH soul in terms of allocation of care between psychologists and psychiatrists, medical professions and the clergy. She observes that this is not the case in some African cultures, where these three elements of human nature’ are integrated in terms of how a person views them, and in how they are cared for. This holistic view considers the social as well as the biological, the spiritual as well as the interpersonal, and health as an integrated state consisting of all these elements. Until recently, with the development of quality of life research see Chapter , spiritual wellbeing was rarely considered as contributing to a person’s perception of health. Furthermore, attributing continued health to a satisfied ancestor would be likely to raise a few eyebrows if stated aloud in a conversation with peers. Spiritual explanations are present in Western reports, if uncommon for example, supernatural forces such as faith, God’s reward, may be perceived as supporting health. A City Guide To Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport 2016.