A City Guide To Shanghai for They comment that conceptualising our mental life as some sort of enclosed world living inside our skull does not do justice to the reality of human experience’ p The fact that this editorial succeeded in being published in a medical journal with a traditionally biomedical stance suggests that Descartes’s legacy’ is finally weakening. The tension between those who viewed the mind and body as separate dualists and those who saw them as a unit monists has lessened as understanding of the bi-directional relationship between mind and body has grown. Psychology has played a significant role in this altering perspective. A key influence was Sigmund Freud in the s and s, who redefined the mind?body problem as one of consciousness’. Freud postulated the existence of an unconscious mind’, following examination of patients with conversion hysteria. Unconscious conflicts were identified, using hypnosis and free association techniques, as the cause’ of physical disturbances such as the paralysis and loss of sensation seen in some patients, for whom no underlying physical explanation was present i.e. A City Guide To Shanghai 2016.