A City Guide To Shanghai Pudong International Airport for However, Galen’s descriptions of personality types were still in use in the latter half of the twentieth century Marks et al. In the early Middle Ages fifth?sixth century, however, Galen’s theories lost dominance as health became increasingly tied to faith and spirituality. Illness was at this time seen as God’s punishment for misdeeds or, similar to very early views, the result of evil spirits entering one’s soul. Individuals were considered to have little control over their health, whereas priests, in their perceived ability to restore health by driving out demons, did. As the Church was at the forefront of society, science developed slowly. The mind and body were generally viewed as working together, or at least in parallel, but because medical understanding was limited in its development through the prohibition of scientific investigation such as dissection, mental and mystical explanations of illness predominated. Such causal explanations therefore called for treatment along the lines of self-punishment, abstinence from sin, prayer or hard work. A City Guide To Shanghai Pudong International Airport 2016.