A City Guide To Sanming for In the early 1870s, while struggling with the disciples of Karl Marx for the heart and soul of the First International Workingman’s Association, the Russian thinker and activist Mikhail Bakunin (1814 76) proudly embraced the term anarchism and developed its principles. Much in keeping with the ideas of Proudhon and Bakunin, the well-known American anarchist Emma Goldman (1869 1940) defined anarchism as the philosophy of a new social order based on liberty unrestricted by man-made law; the theory that all forms of government rest on violence and are therefore wrong and harmful, as well as unnecessary.6 Anarchy literally means the absence of rule. It is based on the utopian hope that in the absence of rulers, people will still lead peaceable, social lives. These lives would be blessed with greater freedom and happiness than could be achieved through the institution of a coercive government. According to Dahl, the denial of the legitimacy of law and force makes anarchism . . A City Guide To Sanming 2016.