A City Guide To Penglai for These children can differentiate between body organs and function and can understand specific, simple information about their illness. They can also see the role of treatment and/or personal action as returning them to health. In this concrete operational stage, medical staff are still seen as having absolute authority, but their actions might be criticised/avoided e.g. reluctance to give blood, accusations of hurting unnecessarily, etc. Children can, like adults, be encouraged to take some personal control over their illness or treatment at this stage in development, and this can help the child to cope. They also need to be encouraged to express their fears. A City Guide To Penglai 2016.