A City Guide To Panshan for Modernists were receptive to the empirical orientation of Aristotle. Scholastics took Aristotle as an authority, however, and were preoccupied with logical, deductive argument and its relationship to religious faith. Modernists rejected ancient authority and advocated a humanistic orientation that was opposed to the theocentric or God-centered orientation of the scholastics. This secular humanism was a legacy of the Renaissance, a period that broadly marks the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The Renaissance, which literally means rebirth, began in the fourteenth century as a rediscovery of the humanistic orientation of the Greeks and Romans. These ancient people were greatly admired for their celebration of human beauty, intelligence, and individual greatness. In its modern form, humanism became increasingly individualistic, valuing the power of the human mind and will and the autonomy of the individual above all. A City Guide To Panshan 2016.