A City Guide To Ningbo for Discussion What this study clearly shows is that children as young as have multidimensional concepts of health that are more complex than simply a change from concrete to abstract thinking as described by Piaget or Bibace and Walsh. Very early on, children’s conceptions include a mental health dimension, which is contrary to that found in early research. Perhaps this is due to the methodology of inviting children to talk about their concepts in relation to their own lives and experience. Age differences existed across each of the four domains studied and are perhaps particularly evident in terms of perceived threats to health although this probably reflects greater experience of smoking, drinking and drug use among the older children. Evidence from this study offers support for widening models of children’s health concepts to include the role of personal experience and socialisation. No evidence was found for a gender effect on any of the assessed domains, suggesting perhaps that gender differences either do not exist or possibly do not emerge until later in adolescence. Strengths and limitations This is a large study with good sampling that asks young children to express their own views and beliefs, and as such is relatively unique. A City Guide To Ningbo 2016.