A City Guide To Mingshui for n How has health and illness been viewed over time? n Views of health have shifted from fairly holistic views, where mind and body interact, to more dualist views, where the mind and body are thought to act independently of one another. This is shifting back towards holism, with the medical model being challenged by a more biopsychosocial approach. n What influence does culture have on how health is perceived? n Cultures can be grounded in collective or individualistic orientations, and these will influence explanations for health and illness as well as the behaviour of those within the culture. n What influence might lifespan play on how health is perceived? n Children can explain health and illness in complex and multidimensional terms; and human expectations of health change over the lifespan as a function of background and experience as well as of cognitive development. n What is health psychology? n Health psychology is the study of health, illness and health-care practices professional and personal. n Health psychology aims to understand, explain and ideally predict health and illness behaviour in order that effective interventions can be developed to reduce the physical and emotional costs of risky behaviour and illness. n Health psychology offers a holistic but fundamentally psychological approach to issues in health, illness and health care. A City Guide To Mingshui 2016.