A City Guide To Linyi for n O rganisational-level factors Racial and ethnic minorities face discrimination and exclusion from the health-care system. Health-care systems discriminate against racial and ethnic minorities through passive means ? stereotyping, patient confusion and exclusion due to financial resources. Health-care systems are not always user-friendly and often confuse people. Individuals’ access to health care are complex issues, influenced by health insurance, patients’ rights and skyrocketing costs; racial and ethnic minorities’ struggles are exacerbated by cultural and language differences. Gender and health An average woman’s life expectancy in the industrialised countries is significantly greater than that of men. In the UK, for example, women are Table Relative risk for men dying prematurely before the age of from various illnesses in comparison with women Cause Male/female ratio Coronary heart disease Cancer Stroke Accidents Chronic lung disease Pneumonia/flu Diabetes Suicide Liver disease Atherosclerosis Renal disease Homicide/legal intervention Septicaemia GENDER AND HEALTH likely to live six years longer than men, with women dying on average at the age of years and men at years WHO www.who. A City Guide To Linyi 2016.