A City Guide To Licheng for Differences in measures taken at baseline between those who do and do not develop disease are considered to be risk factors for disease people who die of cancer, for example, are more likely to have smoked at baseline than those who do not, suggesting smoking contributes to risk for developing cancer. Each of the studies using this form of analysis has found that baseline measures of SES predict subsequent health status, while health status does not predict SES so strongly. Socio-economic status is therefore generally seen as a cause of differences in health status rather than a consequence e.g. Marmot et al Other data supporting the social causation model show that many people’s health deteriorates as they move from employment to unemployment as a result of factors unrelated to individual health, particularly if they experience economic difficulties e.g. Ferrie et al Data from Davey-Smith and Philips are also relevant here. A City Guide To Licheng 2016.