A City Guide To Kunming for , for example, found that in a population of older Japanese adults, for women only, being single and in irregular or no contact with close relatives were independent risk factors for mortality. Work and health Some of the excess mortality among people in lower socio-economic groups may result from the different work environments experienced by people across the socio-economic groups. Part of this difference may reflect the physical risks associated with particular jobs. Although health and safety legislation has improved the working conditions of most workers, there are still environments, such as building sites, that carry a significant risk of injury or disability. Work factors may also influence levels of engagement in healthcompromising behaviours. Given the previous discussion on SES and health, it should be of no surprise that blue-collar workers tend to engage in more health-damaging behaviours, such as smoking, than white-collar workers e.g. A City Guide To Kunming 2016.