A City Guide To Kowloon for Lawrence et al However, a variety of more subtle work factors may also influence behaviour. Binge drinking, for example, has been associated with job alienation, job stress, inconsistent social controls, and a work drinking culture e.g. Bacharach et al Similarly, long work hours, lack of control over work and poor social support have been associated with high levels of smoking among blue-collar workers Westman et al Other psychological research has focused on theories which suggest there is something intrinsic to different work environments that impacts directly on health ? work stress. Work stress One of the first models to systematically consider elements of the work environment that contributed to stress and illness was developed by Karasek and Theorell Their model identified three key factors that contribute to work stress . the demands of the job . the degree of freedom to make decisions about how best to cope with these demands job autonomy . A City Guide To Kowloon 2016.