A City Guide To Huangchuan for Traditional masculine beliefs endorse the idea that men are independent, self-reliant, strong and tough. Courtney suggested, for example, that when men say I haven’t been to a doctor in years’, they are both reporting a health practice and making a statement about their masculinity. Charmaz identified several examples of quite extreme behaviours in which men would engage in order to hide their disabilities, including a wheelchair-bound diabetic man skipping lunch and risking a coma rather than embarrassing himself by asking for help in the dining area, and a middle-aged man with CHD declining offers of easier jobs to prove he was still capable of strenuous work. Mahalik et al. found that masculine beliefs were stronger predictors of risky health behaviours including smoking and alcohol abuse than demographic variables such as education and income. They may be established relatively early in life adolescents with traditional masculine beliefs are less likely to attend their doctor for a physical examination than those with less traditional beliefs Marcell et al The one health-promoting behaviour that men consistently engage in more than women is leisure exercise e.g. A City Guide To Huangchuan 2016.