A City Guide To Hong Kong for g. emphysema Julien . Overall, the evidence as to the negative health effects of smoking tobacco is indisputable, and more recently the evidence as to the negative effects of passive smoking has been increasing Department of Health b. Prevalence of smoking Worldwide, almost per cent of deaths are attributed to tobacco use and the World Health report points out that between and ? a relatively short period ? there were at least million more deaths attributable to tobacco WHO In developed countries tobacco creates the largest disease burden closely followed by blood pressure, and then alcohol, cholesterol and being overweight. There are some positive signs, however, that at least in developed countries, possibly as a result of growing awareness of the negative health consequences of smoking, changes in the prevalence and uptake of smoking are present. For example, approximately per cent of men and per cent of women smoked in the UK during the s, whereas by these percentages had declined significantly, to approximately per cent of men and per cent of women Peto et al This reduced prevalence has been associated with a decrease in lung cancer rates, but the full benefits of more recent declines in smoking prevalence will only be seen in mortality figures of future decades. A less encouraging finding is that the downturn in the number of men smoking is not reflected among women, who show a slower rate of reduction, and among young girls, who show a greater increase in smoking initiation Blenkinsop et al. A City Guide To Hong Kong 2016.