A City Guide To Haizhou for n Health cognitions. There is evidence that beliefs such as unrealistic optimism’ regarding the potential of experiencing negative health consequences of smoking and of other health-risk behaviours are common i.e. It won’t happen to me as I smoke less than other people my age’ ? see Chapter n Stress. Stress is often cited as a factor which maintains smoking see below, but there is also evidence of a role for stress in smoking initiation. See research focus below. RESEARCH FOCUS Does perceived stress influence adolescent smoking? Byrne, D. A City Guide To Haizhou 2016.