A City Guide To Haimen for However, the findings reported in this paper are consistent with other surveys of gender and stress, and gender and smoking, and so the authors conclude that the implications of their findings are for the provision of stress management strategies for girls at a stage before smoking has been adopted, in order to potentially prevent smoking uptake. Curiously, the authors do not consider the role of social background e.g the child’s academic ability or parental educational attainment in explaining the association between stress and smoking shown for girls as they do when explaining the finding for boys. As we have seen in Chapter , socio-economic correlates and predictors of health behaviour exist for both genders and see Payne for a review, and therefore is likely to be implicated also on the findings for girls in this paper. Stress is likely to be only one of many possible causes of smoking uptake. H – R I S K a motivational model of substance use based on consistent findings that people’s decisions about substance use, including tobacco, are not necessarily rational but involve a range of motivational and emotional components. For example, a person considering their smoking behaviour may do so in relation to other aspects of their lives that they may or may not derive satisfaction from. A City Guide To Haimen 2016.