A City Guide To Gucheng Chengguanzhen for reinforcement individuals receive for their behaviour see Chapter These approaches therefore consider the individual, their drinking behaviour and the social environment. Nowadays, at least in the UK and elsewhere in Europe, abstinence is considered as one possible treatment outcome among others, such as controlled drinking. In controlled drinking, individuals are encouraged to restrict their consumption to certain occasions/settings/ times of day, or to control the alcoholic content of drinks consumed by, for example, switching to low-alcohol alternatives Heather and Robertson Patterns of heavy drinking laid down in late childhood and early adulthood tend to set the pattern for heavy drinking in adulthood, and alcoholrelated health problems such as liver cirrhosis tend to accumulate in middle age. Health promotion efforts therefore have two targets primary prevention in terms of educating children about the risks of heavy drinking and about safe’ levels of consumption; and secondary prevention in terms of changing the behaviour of those already engaged in heavy drinking. Examples of these are described in Chapters and Smoking After caffeine and alcohol, nicotine is the next most commonly used psychoactive drug in society today. While smoking behaviour receives a vast amount of negative publicity arising from the death toll attached to it, nicotine is a legal drug, with sale of nicotine-based substances cigarettes, cigars providing many tobacco companies and many governments as a result of tobacco tax with a vast income as does alcohol. A shift in how society views smoking has slowly taken shape, with worksite bans, legislation regarding smoking in public places, and restrictions on tobacco advertising having some effect e. A City Guide To Gucheng Chengguanzhen 2016.