A City Guide To Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport for Evidence of the health gains of smoking cessation have been demonstrated the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II, for example, reported a significant decrease in age-specific mortality rates for former smokers compared with current smokers, with the benefit being present in those aged over , and even in those who ceased smoking aged Although elderly groups present particular challenges to health educators, due to the consistent finding that they attribute many health consequences of smoking to the general ageing process, and that they are often highly dependent on the behaviour psychologically and physically, interventions that combine age-relevant risk information and support are likely to be as effective in achieving smoking cessation as similar interventions in younger populations. Smoking as an addiction The addictive potential of smoking arises from the pharmacological substance, nicotine, which acts as a brain stimulant, releases our natural opiates, beta-endorphins, and causes an increased metabolic rate Julien Physical dependence arises when an individual develops tolerance to the effects of nicotine and smokes more to attain the same effects or to avoid the withdrawal effects that follow a diminished bloodstream nicotine level e.g. cravings, insomnia, sweating, increased appetite e.g. West In this way, smoking can become self-reinforcing. Psychological symptoms of withdrawal such as anxiety, restlessness and irritability are often so pronounced that individuals may recommence smoking in a deliberate attempt to eliminate these symptoms, which are distressing not only for them but also for those around them! Resuming smoking provides reinforcement in terms of the avoidance of any further withdrawal symptoms. A City Guide To Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport 2016.