A City Guide To Genhe for In , Jellinek described alcoholism as a disease but considered both the nature of the substance and the pre-existing characteristics of the person who used it. While it became accepted that alcohol could be used by the majority without any resulting harm, a minority of individuals developed alcohol dependence, and for these individuals pre-existing genetic and psychological weaknesses’ were acknowledged. Addiction was seen as an acquired, permanent state of being over which the individual could regain control only by means of abstinence, and treatment reflected this for example, the self-help organisation, Alcoholics Anonymous, founded in , had the primary goal of helping individuals to achieve lifelong abstinence. However, in psychology during the early twentieth century, the growth of behaviourism brought with it new methods of treatment for those with drinking problems that drew from the principles of social learning theory and conditioning theory. These perspectives consider behaviour to result from learning and from the reinforcement that any behaviour receives. Excessive alcohol consumption, according to these theories, can be unlearned’ by applying behavioural principles to treatment. Such treatment would aim to identify the cues for an individual’s drinking behaviour and the type of behaviourism the belief that psychology is the study of observables and therefore that behaviour, not mental processes, is central. A City Guide To Genhe 2016.