A City Guide To Fangshan for , although there is need for more longitudinal research to confirm the pathways through which any effects may be achieved Mattocks et al Once a relationship between behaviour and a health outcome has been established, it is important to ask how’ this relationship operates. In terms of exercise and reduced heart disease risk, it appears that regular performance of exercise strengthens the heart muscle and increases cardiac and respiratory efficiency; it also tends to reduce blood pressure, and people who exercise regularly have a lesser tendency to accumulate body fat e.g. Pate et al. UK Health Education Authority and UK Sports Council Exercise therefore helps to maintain the balance between energy intake and energy output and works to protect physical health in a variety of ways; it has also been shown to have benefits on psychological wellbeing. The psychological benefits of exercise Exercise has repeatedly been associated with psychological benefits in terms of elevated mood among clinical populations e.g. A City Guide To Fangshan 2016.