A City Guide To Dalai for This can be seen in the many models of behaviour and health behaviour utilised by health psychologists and these are covered in detail in the next chapter. H – The costs and benefits of screening While screening programmes for both disease detection and risk factor status have proliferated, questions remain as to whether there are as many benefits to the individuals undergoing screening as there are to wider society. Furthermore, some findings call into question whether the benefits of screening ? in terms of eliciting behaviour change that reduces disease risk to the individual, or in terms of enabling early disease symptoms to be treated and subsequently the threat of disease progression to be reduced or removed ? justify the financial costs of implementing large-scale screening programmes. In order to try to maximise the benefits of screening to both the individual and to society, some researchers have set out what they consider to be necessary criteria for effective screening programmes. n Criteria for establishing screening programmes Austoker describes several criteria on which the introduction of screening programmes aimed at early detection of prostrate, ovarian and testicular cancer should be based. These criteria can usefully be applied to all forms of screening for disease detection, and many also apply to genetic testing n The condition should be an important health problem i.e. A City Guide To Dalai 2016.