A City Guide To Chengzhong for n Adequate facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be in place. n Issues of screening frequency and follow-up should be agreed. n The costs individual and health care should be considered in relation to the benefits individual and public health. n Any particular subgroups to target should be identified. However, it is difficult to conclude whether some screening programmes meet the criteria of benefits outweighing costs, one of Austoker’s listed criteria. For example, while public health, disease prevention and detection concerns are being addressed by screening, it is important not to lose sight of the individual. Marteau and Kinmouth note that a traditional public health approach to screening regards the population benefits of reduced morbidity and mortality as inherent, not to be appraised by individuals before they decide whether or not to participate. A City Guide To Chengzhong 2016.