A City Guide To Chaohu for published a paper in the highly respected medical journal, The L ancet, which speculated that there may be a link between MMR vaccine and autism and/or IBD on the basis of their finding that among twelve children referred for gastroenterological investigation, nine manifested varying degrees of behavioural problems that had received autistic spectrum diagnoses. In eight cases, parents attributed the onset of behavioural symptoms to a time following the MMR vaccine. However, this study was seriously limited by its small sample size, and the link was only speculative, but the media did not address these weaknesses. Many other larger-scale studies have followed Wakefield et al.’s, such as Peltola et al.’s study, which found no evidence of a link between MMR, autism and inflammatory bowel disease in spite of conducting a fourteen-year prospective study; or Taylor et al.’s study, which reviewed children with autism born between and and found no sudden increase in autism cases associated with the introduction of the MMR vaccine in and no difference in the age of autism diagnosis between those who had been immunised and those who had not Taylor et al Taylor and colleagues more recently confirmed these findings in a population study conducted in five health districts in England Taylor et al and see Chapter so too do emotional and cognitive variables. A City Guide To Chaohu 2016.