A City Guide To Changping for Some types of screening form long-term goals of public health, such as mass screening for the gene for cystic fibrosis among couples during pregnancy Stone and Stewart Screening, for whatever risk factor or disease, is not as yet compulsory, and therefore the generally low level of uptake of screening opportunities plays an important part in whether people go on to develop diseases that they may have been able to avoid or reduce their risk of developing. As shown, health screening covers many conditions across the lifespan, and in relation to the procedures and conditions described above, generally involves an individual attending a screening appointment. However, other forms of health screening exist that rely on an individual performing the screening themselves. H – Self-screening behaviour Self-examination behaviour is most commonly advocated and studied in relation to early detection of breast cancer, although testicular self-examination and skin self-examination are now getting more attention. Among women, breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death although the incidence of lung cancer in women is growing, and despite increasing numbers of screening programmes available in health-care settings, up to per cent of all breast cancers are first detected through self-examination. While health campaigns have attempted to promote self-examination behaviour, there has in fact been some controversy over the efficacy of breast self-examination. One study contributing to this controversy is a large, ten-year study carried out in Shanghai, China Thomas et al. A City Guide To Changping 2016.