A City Guide To Changli for Uptake of screening behaviour Psychology, particularly health and social psychology, has a large part to play in helping to identify predictors of the uptake of screening programmes, such as individual attitudes and beliefs about illness, about screening, and about preventive behaviour. While the increasing availability of screening programmes for many diseases and disease risk factors seems to have increased uptake, generally uptake remains at a lower level than is considered optimal in terms of disease reduction at a societal level. n Factors associated with screening behaviour A range of factors have been found to be associated with the non-uptake of screening opportunities or self-examination behaviour, including n lower levels of education and income; n age e.g. younger women tend not to attend risk-factor screening; n lack of knowledge about the condition; n lack of knowledge about the purpose of screening; n lack of knowledge about potential outcomes of screening; n embarrassment regarding the procedures involved; n fear that something bad’ will be detected; n fear of pain or discomfort during the procedure; n lack of self-belief self-efficacy, see Chapter in terms of being able to practise self-examination correctly. In terms of self-screening behaviour, knowledge of testicular cancer and the practice of self-examination have generally been found to be at a low level. Studies of breast self-examination have found that even among women who do perform it, many do not do so correctly i. A City Guide To Changli 2016.