A City Guide To Binzhou for Internal beliefs are theoretically associated with high levels of health-protective behaviour and with Bandura’s self-efficacy construct see below. . External/chance strong external beliefs consider that external forces such as luck, fate or chance determine an individual’s health state, rather than their own behaviour. . Powerful others strong beliefs on this scale consider health state to be determined by the actions of powerful others such as health and medical professionals. Wallston argued that these dimensions become relevant only if an individual values their health. This reflects the theoretical underpinning to locus of control, that of social learning or social cognitive theory Bandura , whereby an individual acts on the expectancy of certain valued outcomes. A City Guide To Binzhou 2016.