A City Guide To Bhola for Mass unemployment, though hardly eliminated, had been brought under control thanks in part to quasi-Keynesian measures in the United States and Scandinavia and the implementation of rearmament programs in Western Europe. Unfortunately, these signs of recovery were not accompanied by the dismantling of the protectionist regimes created by the principal manufacturing economies in the early 1930s. The system of imperial preferences established for the British Commonwealth at the 1932 Ottawa Conference, while not the most discriminatory then existing, was bound to have a significant effect on international trade inasmuch as the Commonwealth included within its boundaries approximately a quarter of the world’s population. The French Empire constituted a still more tightly protected trading area. Both Germany and Italy pursued AUTARKY and sought preferential relationships with their neighbors in southeast Europe; while America and the SOVIET UNION, secure behind high tariff walls, had become virtually self-sufficient by the end of the 1930s. Countries waging war. The outbreak of World War II in September 1939, at once represented a continuation of this pattern, and was responsible for violently disrupting it. A City Guide To Bhola 2016.