A City Guide To Baoqing for However, some individuals maintain a dissociation between attitudes and behaviour, for example so-called dissonant smokers, who continue to smoke despite holding a number of negative attitudes towards smoking. This conflict is sometimes referred to as ambivalence, where a person’s motivation to change could potentially be undermined by the holding of ambivalent attitudes or competing goals, such as believing low-fat food to be a healthy option that they would like to increase intake of while not wanting to appear obsessive about their diet e.g. Sparks et al Attitudes alone are insufficient. Many factors can shape, challenge or change initial attitudes, cause them to be ignored, or increase the likelihood of them being acted upon, as can be seen in this chapter. Risk perceptions and unrealistic optimism People often engage in risky or unhealthy behaviour because they do not consider themselves to be at risk, or at least do not do so accurately, believing for example that I do not smoke as much as ? person X? and therefore won’t be at risk of cancer compared with them’. Weinstein named this biased risk perception, which he found to be common, unrealistic optimism’ ? unrealistic’ because quite obviously not everyone can be at low risk. A City Guide To Baoqing 2016.