A City Guide To Baihe for In relation to health-risk behaviour, there are many sources of information that a person is exposed to for example, televised advertisements graphically illustrating the negative consequences of smoking; an older sibling or parent appearing to be healthy in spite of regular binge drinking episodes; a classroom workshop on how to just say no’ to the first offer of a cigarette or other drug; a friend who smokes telling you that smoking is cool. There is consistent evidence to show that the credibility, similarity to self and even the attractiveness of the source of information influences whether or not attitudinal change or behaviour change occurs as a consequence e.g. Petty and Cacioppo , see Chapter for further discussion of influences on the effectiveness of health promotion. dispositional pessimism having a generally negative outlook on life and a tendency to anticipate negative outcomes as opposed to dispositional optimism Plate Social norms have been found to be important predictors of whether or not a person initiates specific health behaviours, in this instance smoking and drinking alcohol. Source Rex Features/SUTTON-HIBBERT Attitudes Attitudes are thought to be the common-sense representations that individuals hold in relation to objects, people and events Eagly and Chaiken . Some theorists have described attitudes as a single component based on affective evaluation of an object/event i. A City Guide To Baihe 2016.