A City Guide To Aral for Self-efficacy The construct of self-efficacy is defined as the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations’ Bandura For example, believing that a future action for example, weight loss is within your capabilities is likely to generate other cognitive and emotional activity, such as the setting of high personal goals losing a stone rather than half a stone, positive outcome expectancies and reduced anxiety. These cognitions and emotions in turn affect actions, such as dietary change and exercise, in order to achieve the goal. As Bandura states It is because people see outcomes as contingent on the adequacy of their performance, and care about those outcomes, that they rely on efficacy beliefs in deciding which course of action to pursue and how long to pursue it’. Success in attaining a goal also feeds back in a self-regulatory manner to further a person’s sense of self-efficacy Bandura and to further their efforts to attain goals Schwarzer In situations where competence of one’s own performance is unrelated or less closely tied to outcome for example, the outcome of physical recovery following a head injury will depend to a large degree on the extent of neurological damage, self-efficacy will be less predictive of outcome. In relation to the outcomes of individual health behaviour change and maintenance of change, personal performance is important and therefore efficacy has unsurprisingly been found to be predictive, as will be seen in the studies reviewed later in this chapter. Humans are inconsistent People can be very inconsistent in their practice of health behaviour; for example, many individuals who are keen exercisers also smoke. Not only do individuals differ from one another in terms of justifications or motivations for behaviour, but their own motivations are likely to change over time. A City Guide To Aral 2016.