A City Guide Ambala for Todt’s and Speer’s reorganizations, devolving decision-making authority downward to individual managers, laid the foundations not only for industrial rationalization during the war, but part of the managerial structure upon which West German prosperity was built in the 1950s and 1960s. Lastly, the thoroughness with which the Nazis stripped the occupied territories of both labor and materials” in 1943, 36 percent of French national income was being taken by Germany in the form of levies” helped sustain the war economy even as the tide of battle turned decisively toward the Allied powers. To offset German success, however, the economies of the other Axis powers performed badly under the stress of war. Alone among the major combatants, ITALY failed to increase its output significantly above peacetime levels during the war. This was caused by a combination of raw materials shortages, with Germany competing successfully for such imports as were available; large-scale movement of labor to German munitions factories; and the innate deficiencies of the Italian manufacturing sector. The Italian armed forces do not deserve the reputation they have acquired from some critics; they fought with considerable tenacity, as is attested to by the deaths of some 290,000 servicemen during the conflict. But they were let down by poor planning, bad equipment and the lamentable performance of Italian industry: A not-so-infrequent occurrence was for basic army training to be curtailed so as to try to prevent soldiers’ boots from wearing through. A City Guide Ambala 2016.